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|Košice (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈkɔʃɪt͡sɛ]
is a city in eastern Slovakia.
It is situated on the river Hornád
at the eastern reaches of the Slovak
Ore Mountains, near the border with Hungary.
With a population of approximately 240,000, Košice is the
second largest city in Slovakia after the capital Bratislava.
Being the economic and cultural center of eastern Slovakia,
Košice is the seat of the Košice
Region and Košice
Self-governing Region, the Slovak Constitutional
Court, three universities,
and many museums, galleries, and theaters. Košice is an
important industrial center of Slovakia, and it accounts for
about 9% of the country's GDP. The U.S.
Steel Košice steel
mill is the most economically influential private employer
in the region[undue
weight? – discuss].
The town has good railway
connections and an international airport.
The city has a well preserved historical center, which is the
largest among Slovak towns. There are many heritage
protected buildings in Gothic,
Nouveau styles with Slovakia's largest church: the St.
Elisabeth Cathedral. The long main street, rimmed with
aristocratic palaces, Catholic churches, and townsfolk's houses,
is a thriving pedestrian
zone with many boutiques, cafés, and restaurants. The city
is well known as the first[citation
needed] settlement in Europe to be granted its
The first written mention of the city was in 1230 as
The Slovak name of the city comes from the Slavic personal
name Koša with the patronymic slavic
The city may derive its name from Old Slovak kosa,
"clearing", related to modern Slovak kosiť,
Though according to other sources the city name may derive from
an old Hungarian
which begins with "Ko".
Historically, the city has been known as Kaschau in German,
Kassa in Hungarian,
Cassovia in Latin,
Cassovie in French,
Caşovia in Romanian,
and Koszyce in Polish
for more names). Below is a chronology of the various names:
The first evidence of inhabitance can be traced back to the
end of the Paleolithic
era. The first written reference to the Hungarian town of Košice
(as the royal village - Villa Cassa) comes from 1230.
After the Mongol
invasion in 1241, King
IV of Hungary invited German
colonists to fill the gaps in population.
The city was made of two independent settlements: Lower Košice
and Upper Košice, amalgamated in the 13th century around the
long lens-formed ring, of today's Main Street. The first
privileges come from 1290.
The city grew quickly because of its strategic location on an international
trade route from agriculturally-rich central Hungary
to central Poland,
itself along a greater route connecting the Balkans and the Adriatic
seas to the Baltic
Sea. The privileges given by the king were helpful in
developing crafts, business, increasing importance (seat of the
royal chamber for Upper
Hungary), and for building its strong fortifications.
In 1307, the first guild
regulations were registered here and were the oldest in Kingdom
As a Hungarian free
royal town, Košice reinforced the king's troops in the
crucial moment of the bloody Battle
of Rozgony in 1312 against the strong aristocratic Palatine
(family). In 1347, it became the second place city in the
hierarchy of the Hungarian
free royal towns with the same rights as the capital
In 1369, it received its own
coat of arms from Louis
I of Hungary.
The Diet convened by Louis I in Košice decided that women could
inherit the Hungarian throne.
The significance and wealth of the city in the end of the
14th century was mirrored by the decision to build a completely
new church on the grounds of the previously destroyed smaller
St. Elisabeth Church. The construction of the biggest cathedral
in the Kingdom of Hungary - St.
Elisabeth Cathedral - was supported by the Emperor Sigismund,
and by the apostolic
see itself. Since the beginning of the 15th century, the
city played a leading role in the Pentapolitana
- the league
of towns of five most important cities in Upper
During the reign of King Matthias
Corvinus the city reached its medieval population peak. With
an estimated 10,000 Hungarian inhabitants, it was among the
largest medieval cities in Europe.
The history of Košice was heavily influenced by the dynastic
disputes over the Hungarian throne, which together with the
decline of the continental trade brought the city into
III of Varna failed to capture the city in 1441. John
Jiskra's mercenaries from Bohemia
defeated Tamás Székely's Hungarian army in 1449. John
I Albert, Prince of Poland, could not capture the city
during a six month long siege in 1491. In 1526, the city homaged
I, Holy Roman Emperor. John
Zápolya captured the city in 1536 but Ferdinand I
reconquered the city in 1551.
In 1604, Stephen
Bocskay occupied Košice during his insurrection against the
Basta, commander of the Habsburg forces, failed to capture
the city, but Ferdinand I eventually recaptured it in 1606.
Stephen Bocskay died in Košice on 29 December 1606 and was
On 5 September 1619, Gabriel
Bethlen captured Košice in another anti-Habsburg
insurrection. He married Catherine von Hohenzollern, of Johann
Sigismund Kurfürst von Brandenburg, in Košice in 1626.
On 18 January 1644, the Diet in Košice elected George
I Rákóczi the prince of Hungary. In 1657, a printing house
and a college were founded by the Jesuits
there. The city was besieged by kuruc
armies several times in the 1670s and it revolted against the
Habsburg emperor. The rebel leaders were massacred by emperor's
soldiers on 26 November 1677. A modern pentagonal fortress (citadel)
was built by the Habsburgs south of the city in 1670s. Another
rebel leader, Imre
Thököly captured it in 1682 but the Austrian
field marshal Aeneas
de Caprara got
it back on 1685. In 1704-1711 Prince
of Transylvania Francis
II Rákóczi made Košice the main base in his War
for Independence. The fortress was demolished by 1713.
In the 17th century it was the capital of Upper
Hungary (in 1563-1686 as the seat of the "Captaincy of
Upper Hungary", and in 1567-1848 as the seat of the Chamber
county (Spiš, Zips), which was a subsidiary of the supreme
financial agency in Vienna
responsible for Upper Hungary). Due to Ottoman
occupation, the city was the residence of Eger's
archbishop from 1596 to 1700.
Since 1657, it was the seat of the historic Royal University of
Košice (Universitas Cassoviensis). It was transformed into a Royal
Academy in 1777, then into a Law Academy in the 19th
century; it ceased to exist in the turbulent year of 1921. After
the end of the anti-Habsburg uprisings in 1711 the victorious
Austrian armies drove the Ottoman
forces back to the south and this major territorial change
created new trade routes which circumvented Košice. The city
began to decay and turned from a rich medieval town into a
provincial town known for its military base and dependent mainly
In 1723, the Immaculata
statue was erected in the place of a former gallows
at Hlavná ulica (Main Street) commemorating the plague
from the years 1710-1711.
This was one of the centers of the Hungarian
language regenerate movement which published the first
Hungarian language periodical called the Magyar Museum in
Hungary in 1788.
The city's walls were demolished step by step from the early
19th century to 1856; only the Executioner's
Bastion remained with few parts of the wall. The city became
a seat of its own bishopric
in 1802. The city's surroundings became a theater of the war
again during the Revolutions
of 1848, when the Imperial cavalry general Franz Schlik
defeated the Hungarian army on 8 December 1848 and 4 January
1849. The city was captured by the Hungarian army on 15 February
1849, but the Russian troops drove them back on 24 June 1849.
At the beginning of the 19th century, there were three
manufacturers and 460 workshops in 1828.
The first factories were established in the 1840s (sugar and
nail factories). The first telegram message arrived in 1856 and
the railway connected the city to Miskolc,
Hungary in 1860. In 1873, there were already connections to Prešov,
(in today's Ukraine).
The city gained a public transit
system in 1891 when track was laid down for a horse-drawn
tramway. The traction was electrified in 1914.
In 1906, Francis
II Rákóczi's house of Rodosto
was reproduced in Košice and his remains were buried in the St.
War I and during the gradual break-up of Austria-Hungary,
the city at first became a part of the transient "Eastern
Slovak Republic", declared on 11 December 1918 in Košice
and earlier in Prešov
under the protection
of Hungary. On 29 December 1918, the Czechoslovak
Legions entered the city, making it part of the newly
However, in June 1919, Košice was occupied again, as part of
Soviet Republic, a proletarian
state of Hungary. The Czechoslovak troops secured the city
for Czechoslovakia in July 1919,
which was later upheld under the terms of the Treaty
of Trianon in 1920.
Košice was ceded to Hungary,
by the First
Vienna Award, from 1938 until early 1945. The town was bombarded
on 26 June 1941, in what became a welcome pretext for the
Hungarian government to declare war on the Soviet
Union a day later. The German occupation of Hungary led to
the deportation of Košice's entire Jewish
population of 12,000 and an additional 2,000 from surrounding
areas via cattle cars to the concentration
camps. The town was captured by the Soviets in January 1945
and for a short time it became a temporary capital city of the
restored Czechoslovak Republic until the Soviet Red
Army reached Prague.
Among other acts, the Košice Government Program was declared on
5 April 1945.
After the Communist
Party seized power in Czechoslovakia
in February 1948, the city became part of the Eastern
Bloc. Several present day cultural
institutions were founded and large residential areas around
the city were built. The construction and expansion of the East
Slovak Ironworks caused the population to grow from 60,700 in
1950 to 235,000 in 1991. Before the breakup of Czechoslovakia
(1993), it was the fifth largest city in the federation.
Following the Velvet
Divorce and creation of the Slovak Republic, Košice became
the second largest city in the country and became a seat of a constitutional
court. Since 1995, it has been the seat of the Archdiocese
|Location in Slovakia
||Location in the Košice Region
|Košice - Capital of Upper Hungary in
|The military base in Košice at the end
of the 18th century
||National Theater built in 1899
Košice lies at an altitude of 206 metres (676 ft) above
sea level and covers an area of 242.77 square kilometres
(93.7 sq mi).
It is located in eastern Slovakia, about 20 kilometres (12 mi)
from the Hungarian,
80 kilometres (50 mi) from the Ukrainian,
and 90 kilometres (56 mi) from the Polish
borders. It is about 400 kilometres (249 mi) east of Slovakia's
and a chain of villages connects it to Prešov
which is about 36 kilometres (22 mi) to the north.
Košice is situated on the Hornád
River in the Košice
Basin, at the easternmost reaches of the Slovak
Ore Mountains. More precisely it is a subdivision of the Čierna
hora mountains in the northwest and Volovské
vrchy mountains in the southwest. The basin is met on the
east by the Slanské
Košice has a population of 240,688 (31 December 2011).
According to the 2011 census, 73.8% of its inhabitants were Slovaks,
and 0.13% Germans.
19% of Košice's population did not declare their ethnic
affiliation in the 2011 census.
The religious makeup was 45% Roman
Catholics, 16.6% people with no religious
affiliation, 6.12% Greek
Catholics, and 2.33% Lutherans,
and 0.11 Jews.
The town had a German majority until the mid-16th century.
Cassovia consisted of 72.5% which may have been Hungarians,[clarification
needed] 13.2% Germans, 14.3% Slovaks or of
uncertain origin in 1650.
According to the Turkish traveler Evliya
Çelebi, the city was inhabited by "Hungarians,
Germans, Upper Hungarians" in 1661.
The linguistic makeup of the town's population underwent
historical changes that alternated between a growth of the ratio
of those who claimed Hungarian
and those who claimed Slovak
as their language. With a population of 28,884 in 1891, just
under half (49.9%) of the inhabitants of Košice declared the
then official Hungarian language as their main means of
communication, 33.6% Slovak, and 13.5% German;
72.2% were Roman Catholics, 11.4% Jews, 7.3% Lutherans, 6.7%
Greek Catholics, and 4.3% Calvinists.
The results of this census are questioned by some historians
by claiming that they were manipulated, in order to increase the
percentage of the Magyar population in the period of Magyarization.
By the 1910 census, which is sometimes accused of being
manipulated by the ruling Hungarian bureaucracy,
75.4% of the 44,211 inhabitants claimed Hungarian, 14.8% Slovak,
7.2% German, and 1.8% Polish.
The Jews were split among other groups by the 1910 census, as
only the most frequently used language and not ethnicity was
The linguistic balance within the town limits began to shift
towards Slovak after World
War I with Slovakization
in the newly established Czechoslovakia.[citation
needed] As a consequence of the Vienna
Awards, Košice was ceded to Hungary. During the German
occupation of Hungary towards the end of World
War II, approximately 10,000 Jews were deported by the Arrow
Cross Party and the Nazis, and killed in Auschwitz.
The ethnic makeup of the town was dramatically changed by
persecution of the town's large Hungarian majority (population
exchanges between Hungary and Slovakia and slovakization)
and by mass immigration of Slovaks into newly built communist-block-microdistricts,
which increased the population of Košice four-times by 1989 and
made it the fastest growing city in Czechoslovakia.
website of the town of Košice
website of the town of Košice
Short History of Kosice
Košice – one of the oldest towns in Slovakia – lies at the
place where the River Hornád emerges from its picturesque wooded
valley and flows onto an extensive plain. This is a city with a
rich and glorious past. It starts with the first mention of a
community here in a document from the year 1230, when Košice is
referred to as “Villa Cassa”. The town itself was founded by
German colonists from Lower Saxony together with the original
local Slav settlers after the year 1243. It is assumed that in
1290 Košice acquired town privileges, with the right to hold
markets and fairs, collect taxes and build fortified walls.
Further privileges granted in 1342 and 1347 gave Košice the
status of a free royal town, ranking it as one of the leading
centres of Greater Hungary. Then in 1369 King Ludovicus Magnus
granted Košice a coat of arms, making it absolutely the first
town in Europe to use such a symbol on the basis of a royal
armorial warrant. Following the period of economic flourishing and
relative peace in the 14th and 15th centuries, Košice in the 16th
and 17th centuries experienced troubled times as a result first of
the Turkish invasion threat, then the religious conflicts of the
Reformation and Counter-Reformation, and later the series of
aristocratic rebellions against the Habsburgs. Despite repeated
armed clashes, during this time the Jesuits were able to make Košice
a seat of learning with its own university and secondary schools.
The confusion of the incipient Modern Age gave way to peace and
progressive growth in the 18th and 19th centuries. The new Baroque
architecture flourished here, followed by neo-Classicism and
Romanticism; the aristocracy moved into the town, promoting the
arts, theatre and social life. By the end of the 19th century Košice
had developed into one of the most important industrial cities in
Greater Hungary. In 1918 Košice became part of the first
Czechoslovak Republic, and although the wartime Hungarian
occupation from 1938 to 1945 brought economic and demographic
decline, at the end of the Second World War Košice for a while
became the capital of the re-established Czechoslovakia. From the
1950’s onwards the city experienced furious growth, accelerated
mainly by the building of the East Slovakian Steelworks. In the
space of one generation there was a five-fold increase in the
city’s population, and a twenty-fold expansion in its built-up
History of Kosice - 13th
Kosice, the second largest city in Slovakia, is
situated in the valley of the Hornad River and Kosicka kotlina
(the Kosice Basin), at the foot of the Cierna Hora mountains in
the north and the Slovak Ore Mountains and the Volovske Vrchy
Hills in the west. From the east, the Kosice Basin is bordered by
the Slanske Vrchy Hills. To the southwest near the Hungarian
border there are the renowned Slovensky Kras Hills.
Kosice has a warm, rather dry climate typical for hollows; the
average January temperature ranges from -2 0C to -4 0C; average
July temperature ranges from 18.5 0C to 20 0C; the average annual
precipitation is 600-700 mm. The northwestern areas at the
foothills of the Slovak Ore Mountains have a temperate mountain
The‚ advantageous position of the city on the crossroads of the
old long-distance trade routes was the fundamental factor for the
development of this place of habitation on the fertile soil of the
river-terrace near the juncture of the Hornad and Torysa Rivers.
The area has been settled continuously since the Paleolithic Era;
an Aurignacian camp site, the earliest one known to have existed
in Central Europe, was excavated at Barca near Kosice.
The presence of a Slavic community having settled here in 8-9th
century was confirmed by study of the fortifed settlement site at
Breh in the area of Krasna nad Hornadom. Another presumed
settlement site of this type is at Hradova, where a castle was
built later to control the important crossroads of the trade
At the end of the 11 th century, the building of a Benedidine
abbey as a center for the spreading of culture was begun at Krasna
nad Hornadom; it was consecrated in 1143. Another fortifed site,
the above-mentioned Hradova Castle, was built in the frst half of
the 13th century. Several settlements arose along the road in the
river valley between these two points, which rnay be considered as
the origins of the later town. According to existing data, by 1216
another monastery had already stood on the site of present-day
Kosice and the settlement itself was mentioned in 1230. It was
situated at the site of Slovenska Street; the frst parish church
in the area was built there too. This place of habitation expanded
rapidly after the arrival of German colonists; its layout followed
the settlement pattern provided by other towns which had already
been settled by the native folk. The German immigrants appeared as
new inhabitants shortly after the Tartar invasion and they founded
their homes next to the existing settlement.
Before 1249 they were granted their first privileges. Owing to
them and to the advantageous situation of the settlement, Kosice
developed relatively rapidly into a town. The Saxons who settled
in Kosice achieved religious self-government very early, and in
1290 they were exempted from the jurisdiction of the archdeacon.
Already by that time, the original, one-nave church
of St. Elizabeth (1260-1280) stood in the middle of the
spindle-shaped square (a typical shape for eastern-Slovakia
towns). The town's protecive walls had been partially built by
that time, as well as the Royal
House and the hospital. The oldest building preserved from
that period is the Early-Gothic Dominican
church with remnants of the monastery located near the line of
the town's western walls. The presence of this religious order
testified to the definite urban character of Kosice at that time.
By the end of the 13 century markets were held in the town, which
emerged as an important center for the barter of imported goods
from Prussia, the towns of the Hansa League in Germany, and
History of Kosice - 14th century
At the beginning of the 14th century the burghers
of Kosice showed extraordinary resolution and courage. They
fearlessly rebelled against the very cruel Palatine Omodej, to
whom the control of the town was granted by King Charles Robert of
Anjou in 1304. Unable to find any other way of getting rid of
their feudal oppressor, they murdered him in 1311 . Kosice won the
ensuing lawsuit with Omodej's descendants. After this event, the
Omodejs joined the opposition against King Charles Robert. The
burghers of Kosice played an important role for the King's victory
in the decisive battle against the Omodejs near Rozhanovce on 15th
June 1312. Their participation in this victorious battle won the
charter of a Free Royal Town for Kosice in 1342, and strengthened
its economic and military power. Rapid development and
urbanization of the town followed.
At that time, a major part of the forests in the vicinity were
changed into vineyards, and growing grapes became one of the main
occupations of the local inhabitants. A mutual cooperation treaty
with Krakow was signed in 1324; the first of its kind. It
contributed largely to the steadily expanding volume of
long-distance trade along the route from southeastern Hungary to
the Scandinavian countries by way of Kosice. These treaties
document the town's important position in international commerce
at that time. Another opportunity to improve its position was the
right of storage granted in 1361. By the mid-14th century Kosice
had only one rival in Hungarian kingdom - the principal center of
the state and the residence of the monarch - Buda. The kings
favored Kosice and paid frequent visits to the city. The imposing
appearance of Gothic Kosice was equal to its importance.
The large, elongated square, oriented to the north, was lined by
osientatiously(?) ornamented houses of the wealthy patricians,
induding the Royal
House and the so-called Levoca
House. The Town Hall stood originally in the square. The
church and monastery were built near the northern town walls.
The Gothic cathedral
of St.Elizabeth began to be constructed on the site of an
older church in about 1380. This cathedral was of great importance
to Hungarian medieval architecture. The lodge and the masons’
workshop, set up while the cathedral was being built, exerted
great influence over building activity in a vast area. Master
masons were commissioned to work on the various buildings,
including those at the royal court. Next to the cathedral, a
detached bell-tower and a charnel-house of St.
Michael were built. By that time the town had already more
than 4,000 inhabitants, and was protected by a ring of stout
In the second half of the 14th century, the town expanded beyond
the lines of town walls. In 1397 Kosice became the authority over
nineteen towns and villages and it acquired the dominant position
in the association of eastern-Slovak towns - Pentapolitana. Kosice
was of great strategic importance to the defense of the northeast
territories of Hungary; the strong town walls were believed to be
impregnable; therefore, the sovereigns often committed not only
their valuables and archives but also their wives and children
there for protection. Kosice was also the seat of the commander
in-chief of the eastern Slovakia towns' armed forces and the
captain of Kosice's garrison.
History of Kosice - 15-16th
In 1419 the town controlled a monopoly in
producing a special cloth - fustian; therefore, all manufacturers
of this cloth in Hungary had to move to Kosice. Ten years later,
Kosice also gained a monopoly of bleaching flax linen, which was
shared with Bardejov.
During the turbulent years of the struggle for the Hungarian
throne, Kosice played an important role. At the end of the first
half of the 15th century, under the leadership of Jan Jiskra of
Branděs (who was an Ispan, an administrator of Saris County,
with its center in Kosice) expeditions were undertaken against the
Poles and Hungarians. Loans for these expeditions flowed out of
Kosice's municipal treasury. All of the "Estates of the Tisza
Region" submitted to Jiskra at the Diet of Seňa in 1445;
Jan Talafus became a captain of Kosice. The reformist Hussites
retained their power over the town after the peace had been signed
with Janos Hunyadi in 1450; they lost it only after their defeat
at Sarissky Potok.
The patricians of the town originated from the merchant class at
that period. Crafts and agricultural production had little
significance apart from viticulture. The mass migration of people-
especially Hungarian aristocracy - from the southern territories
of the kingdom occupied by the Turks resulted in an enormous
concentration of population within the town walls; the number
reached 7,000. At the time when Buda was seized and occupied by
the Turks, Kosice became the capital of the Hungarian kingdom for
In the mid-16th century a great fire almost destroyed the whole
town. It damaged St.
Elizabeth's as well as the town walls. Owing to the support of
the royal court, a new Renaissance town arose on the ruins of the
old one. During the reconstruction works, the vacant ground, which
had remained on the building plots, especially behind the houses,
was built up with additional buildings with the purpose of housing
the rising population.
History of Kosice - 17-18th
The significance of Kosice for the revitalization
of the Hungarian kingdom in the east and southeast was also
reflected in the gradual modernization of the fortifications. In
the 16th and 17th centuries, the town became an almost impregnable
fortress with three lines of walls and a moat. During the reign of
King Leopold I, a star shaped citadel was built in front of the
southern gate. Today it can be seen only in contemporary
engravings of the town.
Kosice did not escape the religious fighting during Reformation
and Counter-Reformation. The churches, including the cathedral
of St.Elizabeth, changed hands several times. The religious
unrest, the pressure of Turkish armies, the rebelliousness of the
Hungarian Estates as well as the loss of leadership of south-north
commerce after the shift of world trade centers westwards caused a
slump in both commerce and craft production in Kosice and
consequently in other east Slovak towns, too. After the Turkish
victory, the population in the part of the town encircled by walls
dropped by one third compared to the total in 1480. The number of
houses was less than four hundred. The erstwhile second largest
city in the Hungarian kingdom was stagnating.
Due to the efforts of Benedid Kischdy, the Hungarian Bishop of
Eger, the Jesuitical University was established in Kosice in 1657,
comprising of philosophical, theological, and linguistic
faculties. King Leopold I issued a Golden Bull in 1660 to promote
the university and make it equal to other European universities.
As a part of the university a printing house was established. The
university was changed into a Royal Academy in 1776, and later
only the Faculty of Law had the charade of a college. The Jesuitical
University Church was built in 1674- 1684 for needs of the
The appearance of the town was altered in the 18th century, when a
new building program was embarked on: the suburbs were being
founded as the town walls were gradually dismantled. The older
palaces and monasteries were redesigned to match the new Baroque
and later the classical styles.
History of Kosice - 19th
At the turn of the 19th century, the economy
revived. Manufacturers producing English porcelain, hats, cloth
and more, appeared in the town. The population was constantly
rising, especially owing to the influx of people from the
At the beginning of the 19th century, a bishopric was established
in Kosice; the parish church
of St.Elizabeth became a cathedral church in 1804.
Revival of the economy of the town was manifested in the town's
architecture. The Reduta cultural center, a ballroom, theater,
large burghers' and patrician houses, ornate aristocratic palaces,
church, and a number of large barracks were built.
The arrival of the railway, which connected Kosice with Miskolcz
and Budapest in 1860, and Bohumin in 1870, provided a mighty new
impulse for the economic boom of the town. Construction of a
railway station east of the town center was also finished that
year. On the site between the railway station and the city a large
park was planted and a new street network was developed. The
process of urbanization of the town was influenced by the traffic
patterns of Vienna and Budapest, creating a system of circular
avenues which occupied the place of the demolished town walls.
With the construction of new rental houses, Kosice attained a
metropolitan character. The river terraces westwards above the
city were built up with rustic country houses grouped around small
squares. A synagogue was built amidst a row of houses situated
along a southern axis next to the city in the year 1866; 20 years
later a Greek-Catholic
church was built in Cyrilometodska Street.
History of Kosice - 20th
The inhabitants of Kosice built a new theater and
rebuilt the cathedral
of St.Elizabeth into the neo-Gothic style. At the beginning of
the 20th century, the Art Nouveau style appeared; it was applied
to create romantic and historical facades. A system of suburbs,
known as "glacis", was developed in the 19th century. In
1912, the Art Nouveau City Hall was built as focal point at the
end of a boulevard running parallel with the old High Street.
Kosice became a significant administrative, cultural and
educational center of eastern Slovakia before mid-the 20th
Large blocks of flats were constructed, new banks, post offices,
the radio-broadcasting station, blocks of flats in Stara Bešeňova,
and schools as well as a modern Roman Catholic sacred building,
the Queen of Peace Church. At this time the first negative
interferences in the urban structure of the city appeared - such
as the new Baťa shoe-store. Large pre-fabricated blocks of
flats built around the town center were an answer to the rapid
industrial development and the rising population in the 1960s -
1970s. Many of the big, bulky solitary buildings were set directly
into the center of rows of historical houses interfering with the
urban structure of the city. In general, in spite of them, Kosice
has preserved the historical atmosphere of Hlavna
(High) Street and the circular avenues intact as well as the
intimacy of the narrow lanes situated next to the former city
The most significant historical, architectural, and art-historical
structures of the town are situated in the center of the large,
The declaration of the historical center of the town, an Urban
Preservation Area, in 1981 was a result of the effort to save the
historical environment of Kosice.
The Names of Soldiers killed in action in the 1st WW burried in
Kosice Municipal Cemetery
|The arms of Kosice city
|The coat of arms and the seal as specific historical resources
reflect most faithfully in symbolic abbreviations the level of
development achieved by a town. The character of its economic,
cultural, but above all legal status appears here in its most
concentrated pictorial form. Especially in its initial stages,
this „picture" is a certain form of self-reflection, an
effort to express the town’s identity, in a form which is
generally recognisable, clearly distinguishable, easy to identify,
but which at the same time contains some significant internal or
external reference that is perceived as being unchangeable.
As a city, Košice is unique in that it was the first city in
Europe to gain a royal warrant for a coat of arms in 1369,.
The city is further unique in that by the year 1502, in the
period of active heraldry, it had obtained altogether four
armorial warrants from four monarchs.
|Historical Monuments in Kosice
of the city officials in košice from 1307
The list of city officials
||Cemeteries in Košice:
Cemetery of St. Rosalie
Crematorium in Košice