Donauschwaben in den USA

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Chronicle of the Ungarländische-Deutschen

(Danube Swabians)

in Hungary (Romania and Yugoslavia)


and the German-American in the USA


By Hans Kopp

from the book “The Last Generation Forgotten and Left to Die” The History of the Danube Swabians”.

All Rights reserved. ISBN No. 0-9701109-0-1  


Updated as of:




            The two events taking place in 1683 begin the East-West movement of Germans in opposite directions. Interesting is the fact that the history of the Danube Swabians, as well as the official history of the German-Americans in the United States begin during the same year.


          The history of the Danube Swabians begins with the defeat of the Ottoman Empire and the settlement of the German pioneers by Hungarian Royal families, following the battle at Vienna on September 12th and eventually reclaims the territories of Hungary by the Imperial forces of the German Nation for Hungary.  


            The history of the German-Americans, in the USA begins October 6th with the arrival of a small group of Mennonites from Krefeld with their leader Franz Daniel Pastorius. They became the first German settlers as a group, arriving in the new World on the “Concord”, the “German Mayflower”. The Mennonites named after their founder Menno Simons; built the city of German Town, Pennsylvania (today a part of Philadelphia). It is the first German city build in the United States. The Mennonites from lower Germany, under their leader Menno Simons was reorganized after the disaster in Münster. They were persecuted by the Catholic and Reformed groups alike, because of their beliefs of baptizing adults and the denial of military duties. Now they followed an invitation by the Quaker William Penn to settle on his grant in Pennsylvania and where they could continue their faith.  


            The unfortunate dramatic and tragic end of the era of the German Nation during Hitler’s regime brought an end to the Danube Swabians in the former Hungary of the Austro-Hungarian Empire prior to WWI or Hungary, Romania and newly created Yugoslavia after 1920. From the Danube Swabian population of 500,000 prior to WWII in Yugoslavia, only 1% remains in that country. In Romania the percentage is lager and in Hungary we find some 200,000 of the original 500,000 Ungarländische-Deutschen present, primarily in the regions of Pecs (Fünfkirchen).  


            Looking at the immigration of Germans during the post war years of WWII, we find the majority of immigrants are from the eastern and south eastern parts of Europe, persons who were able to escape from behind the “Iron Curtain”. Primarily from the former territories of the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires which are now, part of Russia, Poland the Czech and Slovak republics’, Hungary, Romania, Croatia and Vojvodina, Serbia.  




The Anchor Atlas of World History, by Hermann Kinder and Werner Hilgemann.  

Die Chronic Österreichs by Professor Kleinfeld, Chronic Verlag in der Harenberg Verlags-und Mediangesellschaft mbh & KG Dortmund 1984. ISBN: 3-88379-027-3

Die Chronic Wiens by Isabella Ackerl, Chronic Verlag in der Harenberg Verlags-und Mediangesellschaft mbh & KG Dortmund 1988. ISBN: 3-661-00064-7  

Illustrierte Geschichte Österreichs by Roman Sandgruber, Pichler Verlag Gmbh & Co KG, Wien 2000. ISBN 3-85431-196-6.  

Die Chronic Deutschen, Redaktion by Bodo Harenberg, Chronic Verlag in der Harenberg Verlags-und Mediangesellschaft mbh & KG Dortmund 1983. ISBN: 3-88379-023-0  

Tausend Jahre Nachbarschaft Duetsche in Suedost Europa by Gootlieb Rhode, Verlag F. Bruckmann KG, München 1981. ISBN: 3-7654 1831-5.

German-American Achievements - 400 years of contributions to America by Don Heinrich Tolzmann, Heritage Books, Inc.  ISBN 0-7884-1993-5  

The Last Generation Forgotten and Left to Die, the history of the Danube Swabians, by Hans Kopp Cleveland, Ohio 2003 ISBN:0-9701 109-0-1, Library of Congress control number: 2003111776.  

Note: Bold letter Danube Swabian History. Italic bold letters German-American History.  




Peter Minuit was born in Wesel in the Rhineland in Germany. He took over the lead of the colony Nieuw Nederland by order of the Dutch West Indian Company and extended it with great diplomatic skills by buying amongst others the island Manhattan from the Algonquin Indians. After his retirement, he built up the colony Nova Scotia by order of the Swedish Skeppskompaniet which became Dutch under the lead of Peter Stuyvesant in 1655. In 1664 the English conquered New Amsterdam and named it henceforth New York.


Franz Daniel Pastorius of Bad Windsheim, Bavaria and his group of Mennonites from Krefeld sail on the “Concord” the German Mayflower to America. The group builds the first German town and names it appropriately German Town in Pennsylvania. Franz Daniel Pastorius is the first to renounce slavery in the United States. German Town establish by Germans and is the official beginning of the German immigration to America.  


Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire, recognized, what he thought was an opportunity to conquer the Christian civilization, while at the time French troops had invaded the German regions of Loraine and Alsace to the west of the Rhine River and had taken Strasbourg in 1681. He began to move his forces of nearly 200,000 troops of a multi national and multi racial character, to the cities of Györ (Raab) and Komaron (Komorn) and sent a declaration of war to Emperor Leopold I. On May 3rd Sultan Mehmed IV, commissioned Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa with the high command of the 150,000 Turkish troops and 300 cannons to march on Vienna. The valiant defensive struggle around Vienna lasted 62 days, until the arrival of the allied “Entsatz” (rescue) troops of the “Holy Roman Empire of German Nation”. Duke Karl V of Lothringen (Loraine) laid out the battle plans for the attack, while the overall command was given to Jan Sobieski III, the King of Poland by pre-agreement and his rank as a king. The fierce battle was decided in less than two hours, according Austrian historians. Interesting to note is that Kara Mustafa (1635-1683) was executed by strangulation on Dec. 25th 1683 in Belgrade, by the order of the Sultan for his failures to conquer the Christians.  


Duke Leslie commander at the Warasdin garrison congers Weretz  


Duke Karl V, went on to gain victories at Gran (near the South Bend of the Danube) 


Duke Karl V frees the cities of Ofen and Pest.  


Combined Imperial forces, under their commanders Karl V, Max Emanuel von Bayern and Ludwig Wilhelm I von Baden, defeated the Turks at Harsany (Harschan) near Mohács, thus ending the Islamic threat to the Christian Civilization. These advances were supported by Duke Drünewald who freed Essegg.  


Duke Friederich Wilhelm, who during his 44 year long reign brought prosperity to Brandenburg-Prussia, is death. He began to take over the leadership as duke after the 30 year war and developed a strong growth in economy and military force which increased from 8,000 men to 31,000 and brought territorial expansion and independence from Sweden 1675.  


“Kurfürst Maximilian von Bayern” is given the high command of the imperial troops and begins an offensive against the Ottoman Empire in Hungary.  


The first Impopulationpatent is released for the re-settlement of Hungary during the reign of Emperor Leopold I, as King of Hungary by request by the Hungarian Parliament in the Hungarian capital Pressburg (today’s Bratislava).  


The historical emigration of Germans (Ungarländische Deutschen - Danube Swabians) during the time of 1686 to 1789 to Hungary from the “Holy Roman Empire of German Nation” who’s Emperors Leopold I, Karl VI, Maria Theresia and Joseph II came from the house of the Habsburg.  

Lorain (Lothringen)  24.6 %, The Palatinate (Rheinpfalz) 11.4 %, Alsace (Elsaß) 7.7 %, Trier (Independent City) 6.7 % Luxembourg (Luxemburg) 6.1 %, Swabia (Schwaben) 4.3 %, Mainz (Independent City) 3.9 %, Bavaria (Bayern) 3.7 %, Baden (province) 3.1 %, Vorderösterreich a region including several southwestern German provinces (Württemberg, Baden, Schwaben ect.) 2.9 %.  (Note: no strict records where kept at the time the emigration took place. Registrars took the names of the places of origin given to them by the heads of the household, therefore we tell you here only where Vorderösterreich was located.)  Württemberg (province) 2.9 %, Zweibrücken (Independent City) 2.1 %, Nassau (province)  2.1 %, Franken 1.7 %, Empire of German Nation (remaining) 1.6 %, Hessia (Hessen) 1.6 %, Austria (Österreich) 1.6 %, Würzburg (Independent Church State) 1.6 %, Westphalia (Westfalen) 1.4 %, Cologne (Köln Independent City) 0.9 %, Others (individually  < 0,7 %). We know among those others were Spaniards, Italians and French.  


The first German colonists immediately followed the victories over the Turkish troops. They were summoned primarily from the so-called Habsburg Erblanden (lands of succession). They came from Upper- and Lower Austria, Bohemia (Böhmen), Moravia (Mähren), Bavaria (Bayern), Styria (Steiermark), Carinthia (Kärnten) and Silesia (Schlesien). The first came in 1686 and settled the regions of the Southwest Hungarian Central Mountains near Budapest. These settlement followed settlements in to the south of Lake Balaton (Schwäbische Türkei) in 1687, in the regions of Slavonia (Slawonien) in 1690, Hungarian Central Mountains (Schildgebirge) in 1691, Buchenwald (Bakony) in 1702, Sathmar in 1712, Batschka in 1715, Banat in 1716 and in Syrmia and Croatia in 1718.  


The citizens of Germantown take a stand on the issue of slavery and thus immortalized themselves as the first to speak out against slavery in the American continent.  


The battle of Slankamen under Commander Ludwig von Baden is labeled as the most decisive but also the bloodiest, where 34,000 allied troops facing 60,000 Turkish troops, among them the Turkish Commander Mustafa Köprüli, lost their lives. This battle is especially important for the Serbian population, since under the protection of the imperial forces, 25,000 Serbians settlers crossed the Save with their patriarch leader Arsenije Carnojevic and received special privileges from Leopold I, Emperor of the holy Roman Empire of German Nation.  


 Emperor Leopold I, grants Duke Ernst August von Braunschweig-Calenberg the “Kurwürde” of Hannover for his contribution and bravery.  


Prince Eugene von Savoy was given the high command prior to the battle of Zenta. Following the battle, a 25-year piece treaty was signed in Karlowitz between the Republic of Venice, Emperor Leopold I and Mustafa II on January 26 1699 at 11:45PM, a time the Turks had selected, because of the alignment of the stars.

The Turks left behind a devastated, barren, and scarcely populated countryside of low swampland along the Danube River. A report from a local clerk of Budapest gives us a description of the conditions of the towns and urban areas, during the reign of the Turks. In his report he writes: “most of the houses are without roofs or totally destroyed. The windows of the houses left are boarded up with bricks or straw. No churches are left standing, with the exception of two or three Mosques. Dead animals and even dead human remains are found in the streets. The countryside is devastated and overgrown with brush and weeds. The areas near the banks of the rivers are filled with sediments of debris and sand. There is nothing but jungle along the rivers. There is hardly a soul living there”.  


The renaissance that began during the mid 14th Century reaches new heights in thinking going away from the earlier years which limited the thinking of the free mind. It departs from the Latin in the royal houses which had little exposure to the public to the universities and academies.  


During a pompous ceremony in Königsberg “Kurfürst” Friedrich III von “Brandenburg-Preußen” crowns himself King Friedrich I of Prussia. Emperor Rudolf II agrees after he needs Friederich’s help in a succession war in Spain.


Arnold Küster (the immigrant ancestor of General George Custer) was elected committeemen of Germantown and refused to serve because of conscience objections based on the Mennonite faith.  


Johann Meißner is able to produce white porcelain for the first time in Europe. The Chinese began to produce porcelain during the 7th Century and the merchant Sulaiman brought a piece to Europe in the 9th Century. Toward the end of the 13th Century several pieces arrived in Europe. Ever since then Europeans began their research with porcelain but were not able to produce the purity of the product till now.  


Thousands of fleeing citizens of the Palatinate landed in England were they found understanding in Queen Anne who set aside the Schoharie County in New York for them, but also the western sections now central section of South Carolina the Saxe-Gotha district.  


The difficult way to greatness for Prussia begins during the reign of the “Soldier King” Friedrich Wilhelm with the return of Vorpommern from Sweden. His believe in discipline and simplicity in his lifestyle and his strong religious faith are prerequisite. Friedrich Wilhelm is able to bring reform to important issues of the time to the Prussians. One of which is the reform of the school system providing education for children between the ages of fife to twelve.  


After the death of Queen Anna of Briton, the British succession acted upon in 1701 (Act of Settlement”) which places Kurfürst Georg Ludwig von Hannover on the British throne as King George I of Great Briton.  


 Hungarian noblemen invite German farmers and craftsmen to settle in Hungary to help rebuild their country. This broadened a special relationship between the Hungarian and the German Nation.  


The victories of Prince Eugene in Temeschburg June 19 1717 and Belgrade on August 22 1717 over the Turks, led to the peace treaty of Passarowitz in 1718. The Batschka and the Banat become part of Hungary.  


A large emigration movement of reformers to Pennsylvania is underway.


the first of the Great Swabian Migration takes place. Ulm was the port where our forefathers boarded the barges called Schwabenplätten, to take them to their new homeland. The barges used for transportation were “Ulmer Schachteln” and “Kehlheimer Plätten”. During this period and the next only Catholics are allowed to settle in Hungary.  


A large contingency of Protestants numbering 19,000 are expelled from Salzburg and move in the direction of Bohemia and Silesia. From there many of them direct their steps to America and arrived in Savannah, Georgia in 1734, one year after the city was founded by General Oglethorpe. They left their mark on the city. Even today one can recognize their influence on the city where residential block are separated by parks and churches they build. A few years later several contingencies of them moved to Ebenezer one of several towns they build in Georgia which at the time was the only inhabited part of Georgia.  


The year in which the great monasteries in the Wachau on the Danube in Austria were built. We speak of the monasteries of Melk whose builders were Jakob Prandtauer and after his death was completed by his nephew Josef Munggenast, and Göttweig, whose builder was Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. These monasteries provided housing and work for the people after the Turks had totally demolished Melk and the surrounding areas. Melk had to be completely rebuilt from ground up. This also marks the beginning of the “Barocke Baukunst” the Barocke era in Austria.  


The war of the German Nation during the reign of Maria Theresia against Prussia is seen as a war which lost lives and did not show any gains although Prussia received Silesia. During the war Maria had a fight on her hands not only from Prussia but from Bavaria, Saxony as well as France and Spain, who were seeking their own advantages because of the Prussian war. Further complication developed for the Empress from the direction of Sweden, Sardinia, Napoli, and other regions. However, Maria Theresia survived with clever diplomatic politics in which she was able to create friends from foes.  


Christoph Sauer prints the first Lutheran Bible in Germantown in the German language.  


Electricity through friction is developed by Johann Heinrich Winkler who recognizes the spark previously observed by Von Leibnitz are nothing other than little lightning bolts and if managed could serve good uses.


The great composer Johann Sebastian Bach is death at age 65


Duke Friedrich II of Hessia-Kassel sent 12,000 Hessian troops to aid the British against the upraising colonies for which he receives 450,000 Taler from the British crown. Several other German royal families send additional soldiers to America totaling 30,000.  


Favorable reports about the American Colonies reach Germany which was followed by an increase in the numbers of immigrants from Germany.

The largest number of immigrants came from the Rheine regions like the Palatinate (Rhine Pfalz), Lothringen, Southwestern Germany and the German Swiss. These Germans were mostly farmers settling in the frontier regions of the land where you could find them from out-post to out-post even in Main and Georgia. 

The settlement at Mohawk Valley in the state of New York was an area exposed to warlike Indians such as the Six Nations. Some of the great frontiers Germans settled were the western boarders of Pennsylvania which brought them agricultural wealth, Maryland and to the west of it and to the south to the Cumberland River, to the Shenandoah Valley and through the Valley of Virginia.

The greatest value of the German immigrant’s was their achievements as farmers. This was expressed by Dr. Benjamin Rush a well known American and signer of the Declaration of Independence.  


The second of the “Great Swabian Migration” takes place during the reign of Empress Maria Theresia. The famous transports of single women traveling down the Danube became known as “Frauenzüge” (Women’s Migration Transports).  


Empress Maria Theresia initiates her great reforms. She understands the Hungarians concerns and is quickly becoming a great friend of the Hungarians, as well as their multi racial make up. As a result of her reforms, the Hungarian economy begins to flourish. During her reign she settles 50,000 Germans in the Batschka and Banat, today’s Vojvodina. She also settles 50,000 Serbians during the same time in these regions.  


A German women on the Russian throne. Katharina II the princess Sophie Frederica Augusta von Anhalt- Zerbst forces her husband Peter III to abdicate and takes the crown.  


The seven year war between Prussia and the German Nation comes to an end. A piece treaty between Prussia and the German Nation is signed at the Hubertusburg which gives Silesia to Prussia.  


Duke Friedrich II of Hessia-Kassel sent 12,000 Hessian troops to aid the British against the upraising colonies for which he receives 450,000 Taler from the British crown. Several other German royal families send additional soldiers to America totaling 30,000.  


The revolutionary war in the American colonies saw the services of Germans by percentages far exceeding the numbers of the German population in the colonies. By vote of the Continental Congress a regiment was formed by recruiting Germans in Pennsylvania and Maryland. The regiment distinguished itself in the New Jersey campaign.

Von Heer’s troops provided the body guards for Washington. It was also the last unit mastered out of service at end of the revolution. Washington also had some of the best brigadier Generals with Peter Mühlenberg and Gerhard von der Wieden, whose regiments were mostly German, soldiers. 

Peter Mühlenberg was the son of Friedrich August Mühlenberg the founder of the German Lutheran Church in America.

Baron Johann De Kalb sacrificed his life in the battle at Camden stemming the tide of the revolutionary war in favor of the Colonies.

It is not commonly known, but the French troops send to help the colonies were comprised of one third Germans from the German Alsace-Lorain (Elsass-Lothringen) region.

General Nicholas Herkimer (Herchheimer) led the farmers at Mohawk Valley against the invading army of St. Leger and in the battle at Oriskany.

Notable to mention is Christopher Ludwig, the baker from Philadelphia, whom the Congress appointed superintendent of baking for the entire army.

Above all we must mention the services of General Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, the inspector General, without his disciplinary training of colonial troops; American independence could not have been won at the time. His teaching of discipline is still used as a guideline at the West Point Academy today.


The Potatoes conquer Europe.  


Mozart’s first Opera “Die Entführung aus dem Sarail” premiers at the “Vienna National Theater“. Wolfgang Amadeus, actually Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart dies in 1791 at the age of 35.  


John Jacob Astor of Walldorf near Heidelberg creates a financial empire in New York and the Walldorf-Astoria Hotel.  


Emperor Josef II moves to more reforms. Most notable are the freedom of the people from their noblemen and the freedom of religion. His move to replace the Latin language with the German language in his country causes a national flair up in Hungary and other ethnic dominated regions. Josef’s II explanation, that other languages are not as well developed as the German language was at the time, to his dismay, not understood correctly nor accepted well. However, the Hungarian parliament begins to realize and recognizes, that the largest problem existing in Hungary was the fact that the Hungarians with 29% were a minority in their own country. The dominating nationalities in Hungary were the Germans, Slaves, Romanians and the Jews among others nationalities, although none larger than the Hungarians.  


August 17th King Friedrich II, “der Grosse” the Great is death at age 74 at Sanssouci near Potsdam.  The public who called him “Old Fritz” established the Prussian Empire as one of the mightiest of his time.  


The third of the “Great Swabian Migration” takes place during the reign of Josef II. During this period non-Catholics were permitted and encouraged to immigrate to Hungary for the first time. As a result of the discrimination against other religion of prior years, the Danube Swabians are 80% Catholics.  


Moses Mendelssohn dies in Berlin at age 56. Mendelssohn a free thinker, despite holding on to the Jewish laws, develops the bases for equal right tolerances among all men.  


The German and the French revolutions are political, social and ideological revolutions spanning Europe. Started in France the sparks jumped over to “The Palatinate” and the Rheine River and from there to Baden and by late fall it takes hold of Germany. Farmers in Baden refuse to serve “Frondienste” and to give up their farm products. In the Palatinate the other centers of the revolutions, rebel against absorbent taxation by the royal families, who do squander the tax payments made by farmers. Now one sees the map of Germany consisting of all types of small identities again without a real central organized government, since the Emperor seams to loose the grip of the German Nation. Like in all wars the poor suffer the most and half of the people’s income is required for food.


Fun with automations finds curiosity in Germany. Wolfgang von Kempelen design automatic machinery for amusements. One of such an automatic amusement gadget is an automated chess game against an automat or? The controls of the opposition are established with a person hiding inside making his moves by using a variety of mechanisms.  


France declares war on the German Nation. What was first an inside revolution turned into a war which lost valuable territories for the empire.


During this time period of continuous wars interrupted with short peace treaties, France, during reign Napoleon devastated the German Nation. The big problem is, several of the non-unified German Nations changing sides several times and siding with the France to obtain territorial gains which ultimately proved to be a disadvantage for all of them.  


With the defeat of the French troops on the west bank of the Rheine River, the Republic of Mainz is a first attempt of establishing a German Republic, during which time the occupation of the French troops comes to an end.  


The last witch hunt on German ground took place after the second division of Poland in Posen after it became a part of Prussia again. Two women were accused of witchery when their eyes which were inflamed, took on a reddish appearance following the discovery of this finding they were burned. It often did not take much to be accused of witchcraft, often only a neighbor’s word.  


From the egg to the chicken. Karl Friedrich Kielmeyer formulated, that the stages of large animals go to the same stages as they did during the evolution of time, which made the same spices the same and spices different from each other.


The first telegram in German was received by Duke Karl Friedrich von Baden. The mechanic Johann Lorenz Böckmann established the first wire line in Karlsruhe. It would still take a long time until the telegram made inroads into the channel of communications.  


Beethoven gives first Piano concert at the Burgtheater in Vienna.


The custom of decorating a Christmas tree during the Christmas holidays becomes more and more popular. The first documented use of a decorated Christmas tree can be traced to Schlettstadt in Elsass back to 1605 in which it states; “Auf Weihnacht richtet man Dannenbäum zu Straßburg in den Stuben auf, daran henket man Rosen aus vielfarbigem Papier geschnittenen Äpfel, Oblaten, Zischgold, Zucker usw.” Which means: “At Christmas one erects a Tannenbaum in the rooms in the houses of Strasbourg with ornaments such as roses made of multi color paper, apples, Oblates, tinsel and candy.” According to a story coming from Austria (unconfirmed), Empress Maria Theresia, saw a decorated Tannenbaum on a visit in Innsbruck, in the Tyrolean Alps on Christmas and started the custom at her residence in Vienna. From here the custom took on the world by storm.  


The theory “longer healthier living” stems from a publication “Maikrobiotik oder Kunst das menschliche Leben zu verlängern”, “the art of extending human life”, by one of the first modern physicians Wilhelm Hufeland. He promoted a homeopathic, natural, healthy living and was ridiculed by his colleges of his time.  


Bremen becomes a trading partner with the United States, primarily cotton and tobacco. Breme is also home of the North German Lloyd and the Bremen “Stadtmusikanten” town “Musician” whenfoour destitute farm animals set out to find a better place to live.


the losses of royal territories by the coalition forces against France became a huge issue dividing the royal houses of the German Nation even more. Thus threatening the very existence of the Empire which was established during the reign of “Karl dem Großen” (Charlemagne) in the year 800.  


Bremerhaven becomes the busiest port in Europe from where 7 million people would leave for America. The German emigration Center opened there in 2005. 


On August 11th Emperor Franz II of the “Holy Roman Empire of German Nation” reacted to an announcement made by Napoleon Bonaparte that he has taken steps to be crowned emperor of France on December 2nd by Pope Pius VII at the Notre Dame Cathedral. To keep the balance of the powers in Europe equal the emperor released a “Patent” in which he stated to raise the territories of the royal house of the Habsburg to the status of an Empire by assuming the title of Franz I “Kaiser von Österreich (Emperor of Austria).  


Further development of events among the German Nation and the threat made by Napoleon I to cross the Rheine River border again, prompted Emperor Franz II to lay down the crown of the “Holy Roman Empire of German Nation”. He no longer saw that the empire was still functioning, since the powers of Prussia and Bavaria among others were in a continued struggle to preserve their own independence during the French wars, by signing individual treaties with France. On August 6th Franz II abdicated and the declared that the “Holy Roman Empire of German Nation” no longer existed.  


On May 31st the composer of classical music Joseph Hayden dies at the age of 77. Hayden, the son of a wagon builder from Rohrau of Lower Austria began his career as a Vienna Chorus boy.


One may have thought that by dissolving the Empire of German Nation it would stop the French invasions in Germany, which now is a unit without a leader and comprised of many small entities. But Napoleon’s return threatened the peace in Europe once more, more than ever. The Tyrolean resistance in Innsbruck is strong, but no match for the French who capture their leader Andreas Hofer and execute him in front of the walls in Mantua.  


Napoleon’s I power comes to an end after a three day battle on October 16-19 at Leipzig by the coalition forces of Austria, Prussia, Russia and Sweden. Commander Field Marshall Karl Philipp, Duke Schwarzenberg, personally brings the news of the victory at Leipzig over the French troops to King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, Emperor Franz I of Austria and Czar Alexander of Russia. A lasting piece seams to be assured after the largest battle in history during which 120,000 lives where lost.

The director of a Prussian hospital writes; 20,000 soldiers lay like sardines, most of them have not even a shirt, a cover or mattress. The air is damp, many of them have not even been taken care of and their condition is hopeless.  


On May 30th separate peace treaties were signed in Paris between France and Austria, Prussia, Russia and Great Britain. The conference is followed up by a conference in Vienna in June of 1915 to discuss the restorations of Europe following the destruction by Napoleon I of France. Among the great diplomats of the time are the Austrian Chancellor Klemens Wenzel Fürst Metternich, Prussians Chief delegate Karl August Freiherr von Hartenberg, the French diplomat Charles Maurice Talleyrand-Perigord, from London Arthur Wellesley Duke of Wellington and Russia’s delegate Andre Kirillowitsch Duke Rasumowsky.  


Natural researcher Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt develops the concept of “Isotherms” of geographic lines of average temperatures. His reasons climatology is the border between geography and meteorology. He divides the earth in climatic zones. Alexander is the brother of the well known statesman Karl Wilhelm von Humboldt.  


The Lutheran and the Calvinist Churches of Prussia united. This was followed by several other German states and brought about the first success in Christian reunion in Germany since the reformation.  


The Munich clerk Franz Xaver Gabelsberger develops the stenography (Shorthand). His work is systemized by Wilhelm Stolz of Berlin 1941.


On October 9th the representatives of the “Heilige Allianz” (Holy Alliance) come together at Aachen. Among them King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia, Emperor Franz I of Austria and Czar Alexander of Russia, to sign the so called Aachener protocol with the indent to create peace in the world.


The fear of the end of the world was spread in Germany by Johann Franz Neck, who correctly determines that the universe is full of solar dust and debris. He calculates the path of planets which he observed for several years prior to his statements and was misinterpreted by layman of his time that started the rumors.


The Bundestag of the German Union in Frankfurt is forced to agree to the “Karlsbader Beschlüsse” the “Karlsbader Agreements” and undertake measures against any type of patriotic-democratic movements.


Language expert Jakob Grimm announced the publication of the “German Grammar” in which he describes the sounds of the pronunciation according to the development, by doing so he becomes the originator of the “Historic German Grammar”.  


Children work daily 12 hours. According to an observation made by the Prussia’s President Von Heydebreck in Berlin, children working in factories are threatened by continued punishments for slacking off at work.


The consumption of beer among German rises and is encouraged with effective advertising slogans.



German immigration to the USA


















Immigrations during the time of 1821-1890 to the USA

Germany 5,009,280
Ireland 3,871,253
England-Scotland 3,024,222
Norway-Sweden-Denmark 1,439,060
Canada-Newfoundland 1,040,939
Italy 1,040, 459
Austria-Hungary 1,027,195
Russia-Poland 926,902
Other countries 1,726,913
Totaling 19,115,221


These numbers of 19,115,221 have to be considered large, as compared to the numbers of immigrants arriving in the United States during the time period of 1790-1820 of about 300,000 immigrants.  


 The 51 year old bookstore owner Friederich Arnold Brockhaus dies in Leipzig at age 51. He leaves behind among his poems and pieces of philosophy an extensive dictionary and thus is considered the father of the German dictionary.


The cultural and nationality movement begins to grow and the Hungarian government instituted an assimilation policy to “Magyarize” all ethnic groups. There was much less resistance among the Germans as there was among the Slavic and the Romanian population. In the cities many Germans volunteered to become Hungarians as compared to the contrary in the rural areas.


 Ludwig van Beethoven dies in Vienna on March 26th at the age of 56. He was known as the last of the Vienna Classical composers.


The “Deutsche Bund” German Union has a population of 30 million. Alone in Austria and Prussia, the largest states live 17.5 Million.

The time prior to the 1848 revolution in Europe the “Vormärz” in Austria, is signified by enormous growth in the industry.


The poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe dies at the age of 82 in Weimar.  


According statistics from Leipzig; there are 2,181 beggars living in the town of which 1,040 are children.


Industrialist, Johann Friedrich, markets the first matches. They have phosphorous blue heads.  


The German democracy is born in Hambach where 30,000 demonstrated German unity.  


The absolute measurement system is developed by the mathematician Friederich Gauss. He bases the length on Millimeters, the weight on Milligrams and the time on seconds. He names his measurement absolute since all other measures are derived from these bases.  


Sixteen hour workdays in the factories are not unusual, even children work from anywhere of 10 to 12 hours a day. There is no insurance of any kind. A severe injury could take a man’s livelihood away.  


Emperor Franz I of Austria is death at age 67. His reign was marred by political turmoil. He was married four times and fathered 13 children. He became known as the “Good Emperor” der “Gute Kaiser”.  


The pedagogue Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel of Bad Blankenburg organizes the first service for small school children. His theses play and keep busy. He calls the schools Kindergarten.  


A new law in Germany demands that the working hours for children are reduced and bans children from work under 9 years old. It also sets the allowed age limit for teenagers in factories at age 16.  


Friederich Froebel founded the first Kindergarten in Bad Blankenburg. His pedagogical concept was introduced the Kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1855.  


The German poet August Heinrich Hoffmann writes the “Deutschland Lied” on the Island of Helgoland. The Hamburg publisher Julius Campe combines it with Hayden’s melody “Gott Erhalte Franz den Kaiser” and publishes it. The song which promotes “Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit” “Unity and Right and Freedom” of all German Nation only than can the German culture survive and the country remain free.  


The cathedral in Cologne which began with the groundbreaking in 1248 is resumes building under the reign of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia as a symbol of the unfinished unification of Germany. The financing is accomplished by the Central Cathedral Club and the King of Prussia and is finally completed in 1880 after 630 years. Some other stages were 1325-1380 the southern part is raised to 14 Meters, 1410 the second floor of the southern tower is completed, 1448-1449 the housing of the bells is completed, 1508-1509 the main central building is raised to 13 meters and all parts of the cathedral are placed under a roof, 1841 the Central Cathedral Club is formed, 1864 a Lottery for the benefit of the cathedral is started, 1869 the north and south towers are at the same height and the medieval crane is removed.  


On October the 18th the national monument “The Walhalla” “Die Ruhmeshalle” in honor and remembrance of all German heroes of all times is completed and dedicated near Donaustauf build by the Leo von Klenze. The monument ranks as the first national monument of Germany.  


The Hungarian language becomes the official language in Hungary. This again brought opposition of other nationality groups, who resisted the assimilation politics by the Hungarians.  


“Der Struwwelpeter” one of the famous tales of the German children story books when children do not listen to their parents is published. The Doctor Heinrich Hoffmann of Frankfurt wrote the children book illustrated with pictures of what does happen to children when they do not eat their soup, misbehave or are naughty. They may grow long hair and long nails and are ugly to look at.  


Buttenheim is the birthplace of Levi Strauss an emigrant to California becomes the inventor of the famous jeans.  


Composer Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy death in Leipzig at age 38. He was also known as the re-discoverer of several important pieces composes by Johann Sebastian Bach.


Revolutions, some of them smaller some of them larger spread throughout Europe. Baden, Berlin, Munich, Vienna all of them are effected and so are the Slovaks, the Serbs and Rumanians among others. The revolution brought about many new reforms for the benefit of everyone, one of them was “United German Constitution” at a conference in Frankfurt. It presented many difficulties to bring the super powers of Prussia and Austria into the “Union”. The first “Union” director became the Austrian Archduke Johannes.  


The Hungarian revolution distinguishes itself from the other revolution of the time, that it took place without bloodshed. Lajos Kossuth, a revolutionary leader, becomes head of the state. This changes the right of the Donauschwaben once more, who are under constant pressure of magyarization.  


The Serbians in the regions of Syrmia, Batschka and Banat demand an autonomy under the name Vojvodina, while the Illyrian provinces of Croatia, Slavonia and Damatia demanded the same  rights which would effect the Donauschwaben population in these regions as well.  


This period is not only politically and economically the most crucial for the Hungarian, as well as the Slavic populations within the Hungarian Kingdom, but also the most criticized actions taken by the Habsburgs and caused hatred against the Germans. However, there were more positive changes than negative changes not understood at the time, which ultimately benefited the Hungarian and the Slavic populations realized by them later. Most of all, it brought organized management, a joint duty and traffic system was instituted, thus making industrialization in these regions possible.  


Democracy fails on the unwillingness of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia to accept the crown as Emperor of Germany. During this time there were 28 individual governments throughout the German Nation.  


At the end of the revolution the “era of industrialization” begins.


Johann Strauss Vater, the Father of the Waltz is death at age 45 in Vienna. Together with Josef Lanner he created the new form of the Viennese Waltz in 1843.


Carl Schurtz a prominent German-American from Liblar becomes a political refugee and become the US Secretary of the Interior that year.  


Hamburg served as gateway to the world. A emigrant museum opened there in 2007.  


Johann Karl Fuhlrott discovers the bones of a “Neanderthal man” in a cave near Düsseldorf.


With this slogan “it is the wish of the Emperor” the walls of the fortress of Vienna, which held of the Turkish troops twice and thus saved Christianity, are taken down to make room for the expansion of the city. 


 Field Marshall Johann Josef Wenzel Duke Radetzky von Radetz is dead in Mailand (Milano) at the age of 91. He was extremely popular among his fellow soldiers who called him (Vater Radetzky). His master plans which lead the allied coalition to victory against Napoleon near Leipzig was valued and gained the admiration of all nations.  


Otto von Bismarck elected Prime Minister of Germany. With him a new era begins and he creates the restoration of a “United Germany” for the modern future.  


The Germans provided more soldiers during the American Civil War than any other nationality group. There were 216,000 native born Germans, 300,000 Germans of first generation and 234,000 men of older German generations in uniform.

The contributions and achievements of Germans during the Civil War are unquestionable. These men provided the backbone of the Union Army. General Robert E. Lee said it best; “Take the Dutch out of the Union Army and we could whip the Yankees easily”.  

No less than nine born German officers became major generals; Osterhaus, Sigel, Schurz, Willich, Steinwehr, Weitzel, Stahel, Kautz and Salomon.

On April 18th 530 Germans rallied around the flag and entered the capital to guard against being taken over by secessionists.

Great sacrifices were brought by the XI Corps under Steinwehr and Schurz during the first and second day at Gettysburg.  

Missouri was saved by Germans for the Union. These are but a view of German-American forces and their contributions to the civil war.

But not only was the North represented by German-Americans but also the South. For example Louisiana and Virginia had several rifle companies of German-Americans.

The first German-American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor was Private William Bensinger.

Not only in the civil war were German-Americans present in higher percentages as their population in the United States, but also in WWI and WWII. They represented one third of the United States armed Forces. We find such men as General John Pershing and Eddie Rickenbacker of German descent in WWI, General Dwight Eisenhower, General Carl Spaatz, Admiral Chester Nimitz and General Walter Krueger during WWII.

The first soldier to land in Europe was William Henke a German-American from Minnesota and the amphibious tank on D-Day was designed by Don Roebling a descendant of the Brooklyn bridge-builder Johann August Roebling. 


“Max und Moritz” two naughty children cartoon characters created by Wilhelm Busch, which are actually directed at children, create hard criticism among the general public. The two characters steal the chickens of a poor widow and anger the teacher Lempel which are two of the seven episodes he wrote and are still enjoyed today. 


During the past Centuries the Habsburg Family had the honor and first privilege to the Crown of the German Empire, but not the territory. This war between Prussia and Austria was not about any other reason but first privilege. Therefore it is seen as outright senseless as so many “brother against brother wars” in all wars are. During the war a cholera epidemic broke out which took 23,000 lives.  


The loss of Austria against Prussia at Königsgrätz, forced Austria to recent several agreements made in prior years with Hungary, which the Hungarian royal houses deemed to be to their disadvantage. It made it necessary to reestablish agreements made in 1848 and prior years. As a result it strengthened the basis for the Austro-Hungarian Empire.  


The formation of the “Norddeutsche Bund” consisted of a “Union” made up of a combination of 22 States and free cities.


Alfred Krupp introduces the super cannon which is loaded from the rear for the first time at the “Paris World Trade Exhibition” and rouses the attention of the world.


“Two out of five survive”. On the average two children out of 5 grow up to reach adulthood and get married. The children according to statistics die before they reach the age of 14.  


On November the 14th Franz Joseph I, emperor of Austria, who was crowned King of Hungary on June the 8th the same year, announces the “Double Monarchy” Austria-Hungary after signing the equalization act “Ausgleich”. The Austria territories are now Cisleithnia (now Burgenland), Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Tyrol, Vorarlberg, Steiermark, Kärnten, Krain, Görz, Gradiska, Istrien, Dalmatia, Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, Galizia and Gukowiena. These regions are under the direction of the emperor but do not actually become part of Austria until 1915. The Hungarian regions besides today’s Hungary included Croatia, Slavonia, Vojvodina’s territories of Syrmia, Batschka and Banat and the Transylvanian Saxons.  


A new French-German war threatens Europe. The victory of the “Northern German States” under Prussians leadership set the stage for a conference with the “Southern German States” to follow Bismarck which levels the road toward a “Unified Germany”.  


King Wilhelm I of Prussia is proclaimed German Emperor by the royal families of Germany. Berlin is chosen as the capital of the new empire. Germany becomes a “Bundesstaat” with 25 individual States. Besides the four Kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Württemberg it included the six large Duchesses of Anhalt, Braunschweig, Lippe, Schaumburg-Lippe, Waldeck and Mecklenburg-Strelitz, five smaller Duchesses und the three free towns of Hamburg, Bremen and Lübeck. The territories of Prussia were enormous. It included all the territories along the Baltic Sea, part of today’s Poland reaching to the south of today’s Czech and Slovak Republics. Poland was divided among Russia and Prussia and no longer existed as a free nation  


Ottmar Mergenthaler of Bad Mergentheim invents the Linotype typesetting machine in Baltimore.


During the administration of Kalman Tisza a consequent assimilation policy was enacted and magyarization was necessary for those who were seeking carriers. Interesting to note is the statement made by a Hungarian scientist: “at the turn of the century, students in higher educational institution speak only Hungarian; their fathers in leading positions received their education in the German language.”  


 In 1862 the Frenchman Alphonse-Eugene Beau de Rochas is given a patent on a four cylinder engine which he never builds. Prior to this Nikolaus August Otto independently develops the principle of such an engine and built it the same year. However, it was the “Gasmotoren-Fabrik Deutz AG” in which Otto had a part in, that the “Ottomoter” engine with its gas mixture was perfected and patented.


The German congress in Berlin released a “Gewerbeordnung” trade guideline for working children. Children under 14 years of age can no longer work more than six hours and for teenagers 14-16 years of age 10 hours. Children under 12 years of age can only work if they have completed six years of elementary school.

Some of the thinking at the time is that the health of the young people is endangered and therefore they are not able to qualify as recruits for the army. According to military statistics 62% of the recruits have to be rejected because of underdeveloped bodies.


The first soccer club in Germany is organized in Hannover although in Braunschweig in 1874 and Hamburg in 1876 soccer was played. In Great Britain “Football” soccer is already expanding and with the formation of the Football-Association new rules were developed which separated the sport from “Rugby”.


In 1834 Moritz Hermann von Jakobi developed the first electric locomotive, which was not ready for use because there were no electric supplies available at the time for long distance usages. In 1879 Werner von Siemens revolutionized the railroad system and uses the rails as a conduit. It was first introduced at the Berlin trade show by the Siemens & Halske-Werken.  


Germanys world renowned physicist Albert Einstein is born in Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, who comes to America and teaches at the Princeton University. A window at the Ulmer Muenster depicts Einstein along with Kepler, Galileo and Newton.


Many public and social institutions make it their duty to provide services to the impoverished.


 The treaty of the “three emperors” took place in Berlin between Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, Emperor Wilhelm I of Prussia and Czar Alexander III of Russia. The treaty remained secrete until 1914.


 While in the early years of immigration during the 17th and 18th Century, Germans of various faiths emigrated, who had become undesirables by both the Catholic and the Lutheran churches.

It was farmers who came to America during the first and the middle of the 19th Century. However during the late 19th Century and the early 20th Century we see highly educated professional crossing the ocean to seek a new future and would leave their mark on the American landscape.

Johann August Roebling designs and builds the world famous Brooklyn Bridge after he had built the Ohio River Bridge in Cincinnati. Charles C. Schneider builds the cantilever bridge at Niagara Falls, while Ammann a Swiss-German designs the George Washington Bridge over the Hudson River. Perhaps the largest icon in the United States is the Golden Gate Bridge designed by Joseph B. Strauss.

Another notable German-American atf the turn of the Century was Charles P. Steinmetz of Breslau a designer of more than 100 electric inventions at General Electric which earned him the nickname the “Wizard of Schenectady. Edward Kleinschmidt who invented the teletype and the tickertape held 117 patents and sold his corporation to AT&T. These are but a small list of German-American whose influence greatly helped shape the Untied States of America.


The composer Richard Wagner is death at age 83. The Fliegende Holländer, Tannhäuser and Lohengrin are among the best know pieces he wrote.


Karl Marx the philosopher and leader of the international socialist movements dies at the at the age 64 in exile in London.  


Fewer Germans are emigrating. Statistics show the immigrations from Germany are down.


Year # Emigrants To USA

Ratio of Emigrants

(compared to the German population per 100,000 citizens)

1872 125,650 95.3% 305
1874 45,112 94.2% 107
1876 28,368 80.3% 66
1878  24,217 84.1% 55
1880 106,190 97.1% 235
1882 210,547 97.9% 464
1883 193,869 96.3% 362
1884 143,586 97.0% 310
1885 103,642 95.2% 222


The first gasoline cars in Germany are build and running on German streets.


King Ludwig II of Bavaria mysteriously drowns in Lake Starnberg at age 41. Ludwig built the castles of Linderhof and Neuschwanstein.


This is the year of the three Emperors in Germany when on March 9th the 91 year old monarch King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany Wilhelm I dies. His 57 year old gravely ill brother ascended to the throne, however totally incapable of handling the affairs of the Empire he dies of cancer after 99 days in office. On June the 9th his 29 year old son Wilhelm II ascended to the throne and became King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany.


Helene Lange of Berlin organizes a “Realschule” for women and teaches as well as directs it to bring changes and education to women. The higher education should prepare women to promote women personalities throughout the land.


“America is around the Corner” the slogan of Cuxhaven, the port for emigrants, which still applies to the port today where the Habag terminal and the Steuben hotel are transformed into a museum.


Otto von Bismarck retires after he holds the German chancellor position for 30 years. Bismarck steered the ship of the German union to greatness and prosperity. He dies on July 30th 1898 at age 83.


The discoverer of Troy. Archeologist Heinrich Schliemann dies at age 68 Naples, Italy. He loved Greek history and was fascinated by the Greek sagas which eventfully lead him finally on the trail of Troy.


Ernst Abby creates the Carl-Zeiss foundation from his company and several other firms he owns.


Werner von Siemens dies only days before his 76th birthday in Berlin. He leaves behind the electro technology for the world which would change it during the coming Century.


Coal monopoly on the Ruhr River. Eighty-six small coal mines create the “Rheinisch-Wetphälische-Kohlensyndicate” in Gelsenkirchen who mine 86.7% of Germany’s coal. They determine the price and the shipment of the coal processed.


Germans settle in Africa. Germany colonizes Togo, Cameroon and German Southwest Africa.


Instrument maker Peter Mitterhofer dies at age 70. He developed the first usable Typewriter, a wooden model and received 200 Gulden from the Austrian Emperor in recognition.


On October 15th the first “Fussballspiel” soccer match is played in Vienna. Needless to say English workers in Vienna form two teams, the “Vienna Cricket and Football Club” defeated the “First Vienna Football Club” 4:0.


Led by Hendrik Witbooi, the Hottentotten rebelled among African tribes in German Southwest Africa. The German Government is able to bring about peace between the tribal rivals in the colony.


The “Kaiser Wilhelm Canal” is completed connecting the North Sea with the Baltic Sea on German grounds.


Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovers new rays named after him. His discovery would change the world.  


Franz von Suppe dies at the age of 76 in Vienna  


Otto Lilienthal an aeronautic pioneer dies at age 48 after he crashes in one of his gliders in a test flight in Berlin.  


 Composer Anton Bruckner dies at age 72. Anton Bruckner was one of the best known symphonists and pianists’ of his time. Coming from a small town in Upper Austria he became the pianist of the St. Florian monastery.


The First Olympiad was held in Athens, Greece between April 5th and April 14th. There were 311 Participants from 13 Nations. 43 events took place. The German turners a team of ten, won 5 Gold, 2 Silver and two bronze medals. The most successful athlete among them is, Herman Weingärtner, who wins 3 gold, 2 silver and 3 bronze medals. Austria wins 2 Gold and 3 bronze medals. The gold medal winners were Paul Neumann in the 500 freestyle swimming event and Felix Schmal who wins the 12 hour bike race of nearly 315 Kilometers.


The Daimler Automaker wins at an international Auto race in Nizza.  


The Austrian Empress Elisabeth better known as “Sisi” among the public, was associated at the age of 60 in Geneva while taking a walk along the promenade on the lake, by Italian anarchist Luigi Luccheni on September 10th. Sisi was the sister of Duke Maximilian of Bavaria and was seen as the most beautiful women in the world. On April 14th 1854 she married Emperor Franz Joseph I and was crowned Queen of Hungary in 1867. Because of her beauty and gentleness she became the darling of the public.


Johann Strauss (son), known as the king of the Viennese Waltz dies at age 73 in Vienna. Johann Strauss became Vienna’s most famous composer with his waltzes that conquered the world on his many tours throughout Europe and North America.


The industrialization had various affects among the population. A movement from land to city is noticeable.  Despite the enormous growth in the industry, like in many other countries at the time, it could not stop the growth of poverty the industrialization brought with it. The 20th Century became known as the century of the greatest advancement in technology men has ever known. Some in the area of transportation, others in innovations providing higher standards of living, other in medicine and others in adding to the destruction of mankind.


“Mit Volldampf voraus” with full steam ahead, with this slogan the German Emperor Wilhelm II ushered in the new Century. However, the well meant good wishes for the new century where already overshadowed by the assassination of Sisi, the Austrian Empress. That the new German and Austro-Hungarian Empires had serious issues providing civil rights to all of their subject is a matter of which side of the fence you where standing. It is certain that the industrialization and the resulting impoverished regions are the cause of much unrest among the many nationality groups governed by those empires.


The population of the of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at the turn of the Century is 25,600,000 and is comprised of the following 11 main ethnic groups who speak 9 languages according to censes.


German 9,171, 614 35.78%
Czech 5,955,397  23.24%
Poles 4,252,483 16.59%

(Ukrainians, Russians, eastern Czechs)

3,381,570 13.21%
Slovenians 1,192, 780 4.65%
Serbo-Croatians 711,330 2.77%
Italian 712,102 2.83%
Romanian 230,963 0.90%
Magyar 9,516 0.03%


Philosopher Friedrich Nietzssche is death at age 55 in Weimar. Nietzssche a free thinker opposes Christian Ethics as well as socialism and calls it slave morals. His most famous piece was “Also sprach Zarathustra”.


The German Soccer Association “Deutscher Fußballbund” DFB is formed.


Women become more active. A women movement is underway concentrating on the following issues; women in the workplace, promoting women social work, equal rights for women, moral issues and values and voting rights.


Nine countries in Europe are ruled by German houses. The following countries are ruled by houses created through marriages of German royalty. Czar Nikolaus II of Russia, House Romanow-Holstein-Gottorp, King William IX of Denmark, House Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, King Georg of Greece, House Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg,  King Edward VII of England,  House  “Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha”, Queen Wilhelmina of Holland,  House Nassau-Oranien,  King Leopold II of Belgium, House  “Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha”, King Karl I of Portugal, House  “Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld”, Duke Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, House  “Sachsen-Coburg-Kohary”, and King Karl I of Romania, House Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.  


Emigration from Hungary becomes officially legal. Hungary entered an agreement with the British Cunnard Line and emigrants can now sail from Fiume (Rijeka) on the Adriatic Sea. Prior to this time, it was simple enough to travel illegally to a port in Western Europe. There were no passports and one could sail to America, if one had the money and passed required medical examines.


The first German Soccer championship was held May 31st in Altona where the VfB Leipzig defeated the DFC Prag with a score of 7:2 (1:1).  The victory by the team from Leipzig over the highly favored team from Prague, which seamed to be celebrating to soon on the Reeperbahn the night before the game on Hamburg’s favorite strip, came as a surprise and then again as  no surprise.


The first unified postage stamp with a picture of the “Germania” a mythical statue, is introduced in Germany and the numbers of student registration increases.


The 40 year old doctor of medicine Heinrich Ernst Albers-Schönberg takes the first X-rays of an Egyptian mummy.


Chancellor Bernhard von Bulow talks of the systematic isolation of the growing European powers of Great Britain, France and Russia which becomes more and more evident.


The unemployed 57 year shoemaker Wilhelm Voigt dressed up in a military officer’s uniform and commandeered a group of soldiers coming his way. He takes them to Köpenick where he arrests the mayor and the bank director. He alters the accounting books and enters the stolen money correctly into an account of an alias without removing the money from the premises. Later he withdraws it under the alias what seamed to be legal to the bank tellers. The incident earned him the nickname, Captain of Köpenick, “Hauptmann von Köpenick” by the public who was amused by his scam and saw it as a joke on the establishment, by saying the “Uniforms mean more than the man in it”. Wilhelm came up with more such scams he fabricated with the post office by adding zeros to the numbers on the forms of the money orders he purchased for a small sum and sent to himself, forcing the post office to change their procedures to guard and avoid fraud by like scams. The shoemaker was finally arrested and served two years in prison for his crimes.  


The ever growing agricultural industry demanded mechanization and more and more equipment is mechanized and developed to increase the production and the yield of crops.


The airship “Zeppelin” explodes near Echterdingen.


First international soccer match played by the “German National Team” was played in Basel where the team lost against Switzerland 3:5.


The Kingdom of Prussia set new rules for girl’s educations which gives women the opportunity to achieve higher levels of education.


The Glaisin Museum is the home of best known emigrant novel “Jürn Jacob Sven der Amerikafahrer”.


Adam Müller-Guttenbrunn (1852-1923) brings the injustices against his German countrymen in Hungary by that government to the attention of the free world with his 6 books and is exiled to Vienna by the Hungarians.


The annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to Austria-Hungary creates unrest in the Balkan. This annexation was approved at a conference in Berlin and was after long deliberations only opposed by the Serbian Nation.


Redebeul near Dresden is home of the Karl May Museum, Germanys famous author of the Karl May books series and author of “Winnetou”  visits the United States in that year.


The Ruhr River valley industry experiences a giant expansion especially in the steelmaking. In 1817 an estimated 64% of the population lived in rural areas. The population of the town of Recklinghausen grew from 7,816 in 1871 to 62,387 by 1905. Laborer, flock to the region from everywhere. Living in the city of Duisburg-Hamborn are 80,084 Germans, 19,000 Polish, 18,052 Austrians or Hungarian and 2,018 people from Holland.


75% of the immigrants to the United States were males; none of them thought of going to work on a farm. Their intention was to make money quickly, to live frugally and save as much as possible in the shortest time possible and then return home with it.


Half of the immigrants to the USA are now females, women with children coming to join their husbands. How many were Hungarians or other nationalities that came during this period from Hungary? How many stayed? How many encouraged by the steamship companies, returned? No one really knows. Legislation was proposed in Washington at the time to halt the stream of the “migrating birds”, those who came to work here and take their earnings out of the country. In one year 50 million US Dollars were taken to Hungary by returning immigrants.

The lists of alien passengers for the “Commissioner of Immigration” shows nationality, country of which the immigrant is a subject or a citizen off, which in all cases for immigrants from Hungary was Hungary regardless if they were Germans, Hebrews, Romanians, Croatians, Serbians or Slovaks. There are no US Immigration statistics breaking down the Hungarian immigrants into their actual nationalities. This of course presents a real problem, especially for such persons who can not establish, if the nationality of their ancestors was something other than Hungarian. Of the 193,460 Hungarians who came to the U.S.A. in 1907, many of them returned home again, successful or disillusioned, we shall never know. Nor do we know if they were Hungarians or of other nationality living in Hungary.

The US Census of 1910 is not clear either. It solely establishes nativity of a person by the place of its birth, which for all emigrants from Hungary was either Austria-Hungary or Hungary.


The shots which are heard around the world were fired from the gun of an assassin on June 28th in Sarajevo. His name was Gavrilo Princip a member of the Serbian radical group “the Black Hand”. The victims were the crown prince Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his highly pregnant wife duchess Sophie von Hohenberg. The whole world mourns on their behalf in particular the people in Bosnia-Herzegovina, who welcomed the annexation to the Austrian Empire.

The Serbian terrorist activities became more and more aggressive toward Austria in previous years already which ultimately leads to WWI. When Serbia did not cooperate with the demands made by the Austrian government in regard to the assassinations in Sarajevo by handing over the assassin serious problems began. It proved that this incident was made by the Serbs to provoke a war, since the Serbs had a strong support from Russia who in earlier years was an alley with Austria-Hungary during unrests in the Balkan, now it became an alley with Serbia. The Austria-Hungarian and German government’s underestimated the situation not being aware that the Serbs had all the supports from other European Nations as well. It was clear that neither Austria-Hungary nor Germany had made any preparations for a war at the time.

These facts proved to be the downfall of the Austro-Hungarian and the German Empires. Here the road to the war:

June 28: the assassination of Crown Prinz Franz Ferdinand and his wife in Sarajevo. July 23: Austria gives the Serbia an ultimatum to stop all terrorist acts against them without success. July 25: Serbia mobilizes against Austria-Hungary. July 26: Russia prepares for war. July 28: Austria-Hungary had no alternative but to declare war on Serbia. July 29: Czar Nikolaus II mobilizes his troops. July 30: France mobilizes their troops to guard their borders. July 30: Germany strengthens the safety of their fleet. July 31: Emperor Wilhelm II demands that Russia stands down but they do not. July 31: Austria-Hungary mobilizes all their troops. July 31: Germany asks France to stay neutral in case of a war with Russia. August 1: France and Germany mobilize their troops. August 1: Germany mobilizes its troops and declares war on Russia. August 2: Germany sends ultimatum to Belgium in order to allow their troops to pass through Belgium. August 3: Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Ottoman Empire sign a treaty. August 3: Germany declares war on France and Belgium. August 3: Great Britain declares war on Germany as response to Germany’s declaration. August 6: Piece has no chance. There is no choice; Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia and its Allies. Germany and Austria-Hungary are now involved in a devastating war they know they can not win. April 6 1917: United States declares war against Germany.


The staggering casualties of WWI; Germany 1,808,000, France 1,385,000, Great Britain 947.000, Italy 460,000, Austria-Hungary 1,200,000, Russia 1,700,000, Turkey 325,000 and USA 115,000.


The dismantling and dissecting the German and Austro-Hungarian Empire, affected some 100,000,000 people. Austria and Germany loses the majority of their territories including large regions of ancient Germanic lands. Hungary loses the majority of its territories in possession from periods of prior to the war against the Ottoman Empire which were repossessed by the Empire German Nation after the war and returned to Hungary.


The end of an era is here. Three of the largest empires the German, the Austro-Hungarian and the Russian have crumpled. As Germany and Austria miscalculated the outcome of WWI, the world miscalculated the arrangement of creating new states and trapping millions of German natives behind new governments who now experience the loss of their inherited rights under those governments, which ultimately would open the door to WWII.


The following immigration period confuses more. Persons of German or Hungarian nationality from the former Hungarian regions, which now are either annexed to Romania, Czechoslovakia or Yugoslavia are most likely listed as such nationalities at their port of entry. In addition you will find new spellings for the same towns which add even more to the confusion of genealogy studies. Former citizens of the German Empire are now part of Poland, Czechoslovakia or Russia.


The Weimar and Austrian Republic is the result of the treaty of Versailles.


The piece treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28th. France demanded the total destruction and dismantling of the German industry. Despite the protest of Great Britain, the French succeeded with their demands. The German delegation protested against the unfairness of the treaty and was able to show that they were not responsible for the war. Whoever, the treaty was a done deal and dictated the creation of a separate German and Austrian Republic, the handing over of weapons and the sinking of their fleet of 72 ships in the North Sea.


1,500,000 Hungarian Citizens of German descent, also referred to as “Ungarländische Deutsche” are separated when the regions they had settled are divided into three countries, Hungary, Romania and the newly formed state of Yugoslavia.  


Constant pressures are applied to the German population in all countries now independent. The Germans lose all their existing inherited right from the time of the settlement. In Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia, most of the German schools are closed. All church and community property of organizations like social clubs are confiscated, although it was agreed by all governments who signed the “Treaty of Versailles” to uphold the rights of the minorities’ predominantly the population German descent in these countries. It was only a myth. Rich property owners, who worked hard to expand their holdings, became victims of the Yugoslavian agrarian reform. Which meant simply their property was confiscated and given to the poor. None of the properties were divided among poor Germans or poor Hungarians but only given to poor Serbians. In Romania, where the churches paid for the education of the children, the church property was taken by the state and compensated with 1% of its true value, thus destroying the school system of the Transylvanian Saxons.


With the republics came the political parties. One of them the DAP soon renamed NSDAP (Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party). It contains a nationalistic ideology. Their first meeting took place in the Hofbräuhaus in Munich and one of the main speakers was a man by the name of Adolf Hitler, who presented his platform. Some of the issues on the platform were: 1) we demand all German territories to be returned for the reason of self determination for all Germans so they can execute their rights. 2) The demand for equal rights enjoyed among nations and to dissolve the treaties of Versailles and St.Germain. 3) Land and soil to feed our nation and space to resettle people from overpopulated areas. 4) Citizen can only be those who are of a German Volksgroup. 5) None citizens can only live as guest in the country. 6) The right to have a voice in the government. 7) We demand that the state sees it as priority to provide work and shelter for its citizens. 8) We demand that foreigner shall not influence the government in decision makings. 9) All citizens should have equal rights and responsibilities. 10) The first order of all citizen shall be to work mentally and physically to his best ability.  These are the first 10 of 25 ground rules of the party’s platform.


Silesia is granted the right to vote on the issue to stay as a part of Germany or to become Polish. Despite the vote in favor of remaining with Germany a part of Silesia will be annexed to Poland.


The London conference of the allied nations directs threats against Germany to occupy the Ruhr River Valley within 4 days if the demand is not met to pay a hundred million Goldmark.


The inflation in Germany keeps growing larger and larger and unemployment reaches a new high.


A demonstration led by Adolf Hitler in Munich to over through the German government marches on Berlin to set up a dictatorship, is foiled by Police. However, Hitler is feverishly working on new plans and new allies.  


Inflation is at its highest in Germany. A new law should diminish the inflation. The Mark stabilizes after that but unemployment is still high.  


Many Danube Swabians from war torn provinces of the Hungarian Kingdom immigrate to the USA. They create many organizations with the names like “Banat” and “Deutsch-Ungarn” but many attach themselves to German Societies. During WWII their organizations suffer greatly and many of them disappear completely, however, new organization such as aid societies in most major cities come to life in an effort to help their relatives and countryman in general.


Hitler and associates are tried for treason and sentenced to five years in prison for their attempt to over through the government and are seen as martyr among the German public


Paul von Hindenburg elected President and leads an European understanding.


Hitler and his associates are released from the Landsberg prison after six months and during the following process, he uses the opportunity to speak and launches a relentless propaganda speech uninterrupted by the judges and cleverly fools everyone by expressing his innocence at the end and he gains sympathy for his party and its members. After he is released and his NSDAP reorganized, he organizes the SS troops as personal body guards.


The royal families are spared from being disowned without compensation. Despite a vote taken on June 20th by 14,500,000 yes votes against only 586 no votes, the proposal to disown the royals failed because 20,000,000 voters could not be reached.


German Lufthansa and Daimler Benz AG founded.


The tension in Germany grows. Several factions promote their propaganda and tensions flair up in the cities.


Car manufactures are successful. Women cut their braids and sport short hair as fashion.


Bloody unrests in Berlin and farmers unrest in northern Germany threaten the peace in Germany.


The NSDAP is now the second strongest party in the nation and still growing. The world is baffled by the huge increase of the party’s membership which increased 9 times the size it was during the previous years. Who are the voters for the party? The foreign press sites the huge unemployed as main reasons. However, of the 3.5 million unemployed only a few support Hitler, although there are the economic reasons. Part of it is that Hitler is a great orator and organizer who targets the youth of the country with his propaganda. It is also people who had embraced communism and now follow Hitler and perhaps the largest group is considered the common worker (blue color) in the industry.

There is also the student in the academic institutes’ who embrace socialistic ideas and finally there are the large self-employed small business people who are in constant battle with the large corporation.

But ultimately there is the inner revolt of the German citizens against the establishments in Europe who felt unfairly treated at the end of World War I which left millions of German citizens under foreign powers without rights. The Nationalist Socialist Party claims to have held 34,000 meetings throughout Germany. There is also Hitler’s deception and ideology which has a great impact in the country bringing in large numbers of votes.


The roads to WWII are deceptions by Hitler which leads Germany toward disaster. January 30: Hitler becomes Chancellor. July 17: Four power pact, Great Britain, France, Italia and Germany. October 14: Germany declares its exit from the Union of Nations. October 16: Begin of diplomatic relation between USA and Russia.


January 26: None aggression pact between Germany and Poland. April 17: A note by France to Great Britain accuses Germany of breaking the Versailles treaty by arming their forces.  July 25: The assassination of Austria’s Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss by National Socialists in Vienna. September 19: Russia joins the Union of Nations.


March 6: France announces the draft of soldiers. March 16: Germany announces the draft of soldiers and breaks the Versailles treaty. April 14: France, Great Britain and Italy agree to counteract all steps taken by Germany. April 17: Nations condemn Germany for breaking the Versailles treaty. May 16: Russia and Czechoslovakia sign a pact. October 25: the signing of a pact between Italy and Germany. November 25: the signing of a pact between Japan and Germany.


April 2: Hitler declares himself Commander in chief of the German “Wehrmacht”. March 12: Germany marches into Austria, September 30: Hitler and Great Britain’s Prime Minister Arthur Neville Chamberlain enter a friendship treaty in Munich. October 1: Germany reclaims their province of the Sudetenland. October 24: Germany reclaims the free city of Danzig. December 12: France and Germany sign a non aggression pact.


March 13: German troops march into the Czechoslovakia. March 23: Germany reclaims the Memel region. March 26: Germany cancels non-aggression pact with Poland. September 1 Germany attacks Poland and the war began.  


Hitler and his war machine leaves a totally destroyed Germany behind. The suffering of the German people during the late war years brought on by the Red Army and the bombing of Dresden, Hamburg and other German cities by the allied forces is devastating. All these events will be overshadowed by the genocide committed on the Jewish people, this discovery was perhaps more painful for the German people as the suffering they had to endure during two wars and the post war years of these wars. However, the most unknown cruel suffering was brought on by the Communist Regime of Yugoslavia against its citizens of German descent during the post war years of 1944-1948 during which time 1/3 of the population of German descent in this country perished by the hands of the Tito’s government.


Wilhelm Kauffmann published through the “The Germans in the American Civil War” ISBN:0-96550926-7-4 and ISBN: 0-9650926-802 (pbk.)  


Don Heinrich Tolzmann publishes through the Heritage Book Co. “German-America Achievements” ISBN: 0-7884-1993-5.





The genocide committed on the Danube Swabians


during the post war years of 1944-1948 in communist Yugoslavia.




April: War against Yugoslavia and Russia. Raids against the Danube Swabians in Yugoslavia are now constantly carried out by the Serbs.


     The dramatic and tragic fate of the Danube Swabians was sealed at a conference on November 21. 1944 in Jajce, Bosnia when a tribunal of “Tito’s Communist Partisan Rebels which by now calls itself „Antifasiticko Vece Narodnog Oslobodjenja Jugoslavije“ „Antifascist Tribunal for the Liberation of Yugoslavia“ in short AVNOJ, decided that all citizens of German extraction in Yugoslavia must be eliminated. Their decision stated: “All persons of German descent living in Yugoslavia will automatically lose their citizenship. They will lose all their rights and all their possessions and their property will become property of the State of Yugoslavia. Persons of German descent will not have any rights or privileges for protection under any law. They have no rights to use any institutions, such as postal services and public transportation. They may not accept gifts”. Prior to this event, the tribunal decided secretly on November 29 1943, to oust Peter, the King of Yugoslavia. On July 31 1946, by action of this tribunal the decision made on November 2nd 1944 on behalf of the Yugoslavian citizens of German descent, became law. One questions the sanity of such a law, a law against humanity that Tito would execute to the tee. One also questions as to why this law has not been abolished in today’s Government of the former Yugoslavia now Serbia and Croatia. These drastic steps taken by the communist Government in Yugoslavia against the Danube Swabian was unwise, since it led the Yugoslavian Nation into an economic ruin for years to come. Apparently Tito’s government was not aware of the economic strength of the Danube Swabian in this country.  


October, the evacuation of 100,000 Danube Swabians from Syrmia and Slavonia to Austria is underway.

On flight are 10,600 Danube Swabians from West Banat and about 80,000 from the Batschka and the Baranja.


195,000 Danube Swabians fall victims of the Tito-Regime and a systematic ethnic cleansing begins.


“The bloody fall” in the Vojvodina during October and November: Mass execution of 7,000 Danube Swabian civilians, among them men and women fall victims of these executions. Most of them were randomly selected without cause or reason.


In Hungary (30,000), in Romania (30,000) and in Yugoslavia (15,000) citizens (men and women alike) of these Nations of German descent were deported to Russia to perform slave lobar. More than 12,000 of them never return. This action was sanctioned by the allied Nations.


Potsdam is the site of the “Potsdam Treaty” signed by President Harry S. Truman, Josef Stalin and Atlee at the former residence and residence gardens Sanssouci of the Prussian King Frederick the Great.  


Almost all citizens of German descent in Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia are expelled from their homes in these countries. 

In Yugoslavia the government installs starvation death camps for all citizens of German descent. Mostly affected are the old and children. Sixty percent of them perish in the camps. The losses among the Danube Swabians in Yugoslavia are devastating from a population of 500,000 more than 160,000 perish. Today only 1% of the half million Danube Swabians remain in the Vojvodina, Serbia (the former Batschka, Banat and Syrmia of Yugoslavia).

The largest death camp was Rudolfsgnad/Knicanin, in the south of the Banat, the casualties there between October 1945 und March 1948 were --- 12,000. In Gakowa/Gakovo, located in the north of the Batschka the casualties’ during the time of March of 1945 to January of 1948 were --- 8,500. In Jarek/Backi Jarek, in the south of the Batschka the casualties during the time of December 1944 und April 1946 were --- 7,000. In Kruschiwl/Krusevlje in the north of the Batschka the casualties’ during the time of March of 1945 January of 1948 were ---3,000. In Molidorf/Molin in the north of the Banat the casualties’ during the time of September 1945 und April 1947 were --- 3,000. The casualties of Syrmisch Mitrowitz/Sremska Mitrovica were --- 2,000. In Kerndia/Krndija, Slavonia the casualties’ during the time of winter of 1945/46 were --- 1,500. In Walpach/Valpovo, Slavonia the casualties’ during the time of winter of 1945/46 were --- 1,500.  


Fall: Since, the request made by the Communist Yugoslavian Government in Potsdam to the Allied Nations, to allow them to deport the Danube Swabians to Austria or Germany was denied, the Yugoslavians initiated border crossings to Hungary in 1947 for the price 1,000 Dinar per person. These border crossings became known as “white border crossings” as compared to the unsanctioned “black border crossings” without payments which often resulted in the loss of live for those people who wanted to escape and were caught crossing the borders. An estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Danube Swabians paid for their freedom that way.


The Hungarian government was able to reach an agreement at the Allied Nations conference in 1945 that allowed them to expel Danube Swabians to Austria and Germany. During January and August of 1945 170,000 Danube Swabians and during August of 1947 50,000 more Danube Swabians were expelled from Hungary.  


Most of the Danube Swabians deported to Russia were released during these years by the Russians in accordance to the 5 year contract granted by the allied nations to the Russians.


December: The closing of the death camps in Yugoslavia.  


„Charta der Heimatvertriebenen“ is proclaimed in Stuttgart.


The deportation of the Danube Swabians in the Romanian Banat to the Baragan is ordered by the Romanian Government. The “Baragan” meaning fertile planes in the Romanian language is geographically situated to the east of Bucharest, along the West Bank of the northern flow of the Danube. Some 44,000 Germans among them 37,000 Danube Swabians were affected by this action.


President Kennedy visits Berlin and delivers his famous speech ending in “Ich bin ein Berliner”.  


President Ronald Reagan spoke to the people in Berlin and challenged the Soviet Union in his address „Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.



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